Apply These Secret Techniques To Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages

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Although most couples are blissfully unacquainted with the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is in fact quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. If you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are in the process of having a miscarriage, you might be wondering what caused the loss and worry about whether it will happen again. This short article aims to answer the following questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
Which kind of genetic testing can be acquired for miscarriage tissue?
How do chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different reasons why miscarriage occurs, but the most common cause for first trimester miscarriage is really a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also called “aneuploidy” – occur because of a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved in a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes that come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and then the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a child to develop normally it is necessary that it have exactly the right amount of chromosome material; missing or extra material at the time of conception or within an embryo or fetus can cause a female to either not become pregnant, miscarry, or have a child with a chromosome syndrome such as Down syndrome.

Over 50% of all first trimester miscarriages are caused by chromosome abnormalities. This number could be closer to 75% or higher for women aged 35 years and over who have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep increase in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common could it be?

Miscarriage is a lot more common than a lot of people think. Up to one in every four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The opportunity of experiencing a miscarriage also increases as a mother ages.

Nearly all women who experience a miscarriage go on to possess a healthy pregnancy and never miscarry again. However, some women seem to be more prone to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience several miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage is apparently increasing. One reason for this may be awareness – more women know they are having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates in the last decade, whereas in past times the miscarriage would have appeared to be just an unusual period. Another reason could be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Helpful for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually refers to many different types of testing that can be done on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also called products of conception (POC), probably the most useful type of test to perform is a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also known as chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are caused by aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue could identify the reason for the pregnancy loss.

The most common approach to chromosome analysis is named karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as for example microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, an activity called “cell culture”. For this reason requirement, tissue that is passed at home is often unable to be tested with this particular method. About 20% or even more of miscarriage samples fail to grow and thus no email address details are available. Additionally, karyotyping struggles to tell the difference between cells from mom (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. In case a normal female result is found, it may be the right result for the fetus or it might be maternal cell contamination (MCC) where the result actually originates from testing the mother’s cells within the pregnancy tissue instead of the fetal cells. MCC seems to occur in about 30% or even more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually take a few weeks to months to come back from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is really a new kind of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; the two most common forms of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing is also in a position to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but will not require cell culture. Therefore, you are more likely to receive results and the results are typically returned faster when microarray testing can be used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting a sample of the mother’s blood at the same time the miscarriage tissue is sent to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How can it help?

If a chromosome abnormality is identified, the kind of abnormality found could be assessed to help answer fully the question: “Will this happen to me again?”. Usually, chromosome abnormalities in an embryo or fetus are not inherited and have a minimal chance to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a specific chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your physician to do further studies to investigate the chance of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your family that predisposes one to have miscarriages.

infant loss Furthermore, if a chromosome abnormality is identified it can prevent the dependence on other, sometimes quite costly, studies your doctor might consider to investigate the cause of the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the explanation for a pregnancy loss might help a couple start the emotional healing up process, moving at night question of “Why did this eventually me?”.

Chromosome testing could be especially important for patients with repeated miscarriages, as it could either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or eliminate chromosome errors as the reason for the miscarriages and invite their doctor to pursue other styles of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to truly have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing might be able to help increase their likelihood of having an effective healthy pregnancy.